Pakistan took out high-interest loan from China

Pakistan took out high-interest loan from China

China - Pakistan Economic Corridor
Source: en.mehrnews.com

China offering high-interest loans to developing countries

Pakistan is caught in the deep clutches of China’s predatory loans to developing countries in its expanding sphere of influence. A $50b high-interest rate loan to Pakistan from Beijing has been invested in the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, but it may not benefit Pakistan until 40 years after the CPEC becomes operational. This is just one of China’s investments for its overall goal of economic and military superiority through which many countries have become compromised long-term.

To establish a road from China to mainland Europe, China has invited countries like Pakistan and Iran to take part in lines of credit aimed at helping them complete development projects. CITIC Group, China’s state-owned investment arm issued a US$10 billion credit line towards development projects in Iran from railways to hospitals reported in 2017 as part of Beijing’s US$124 billion Belt and Road Initiative to connect China with Europe and Africa.

The loan terms have a high interest and repayment rate which means the likelihood of these developing countries to default is high. If they do default China will be granted control over land and sea resources and with these gained territories in Pakistan, Iran, and other countries China would be able to build strategic military bases among other things. China’s plan has already proved viable in the Congo.

 

Democratic Republic of Congo & Pakistan took out a loan from China

In 2017, Bloomberg reported that “The Democratic Republic of Congo’s government failed to account for more than half a billion dollars of infrastructure loans received from Chinese institutions over a six-year period, according to the Carter Center.”

The copper-mining venture, Sicomines, received $1.163 billion in loans between 2008 and 2014 for infrastructure. Only $478 million was disbursed. Congo holds the world’s largest supply of cobalt and is Africa’s largest producer of copper. The $3.2b mining job for Sicomines operates on a 6.8 million-metric-ton deposit is only part of a larger China-Congo deal struck in 2007.

Pakistan has already received $1b in a new $2b loan announced on July 28. The Tribune reported, “The $2 billion loan is likely to ease pressure on official foreign currency reserves and the rupee-dollar parity. The rupee strengthened by 64 paisas against the US dollar in the interbank market, closing at Rs 127.86 on Friday,” adding that the military has already declared the economy a state of emergency. Mike Pompeo has warned Imran-Khan not to use any funds provided by IMF $12b bailout to repay loans to China.

 

Source  | Source  | Source  | Source  | Source  

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.

Reza Shah and the Tribes of Iran

Reza Shah and the Tribes of Iran

Persian Voices: Paths of Progress and Advancement

Reza Shah turns nomads into farmers using the Iranian Army

Reza Shah utilized Iran’s modern army to settle the tribes throughout the country from their nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyles to that of farming. The tribes resisted but were ultimately suppressed by the Iranian army. This had a significant impact on the ecological health of the land as numerous livestock were abandoned which impacted Persia’s food supply.

In spite of Reza Shah’s promotion of ancient Persian history and archeology, there is a striking contrast between Reza Shah’s relationship to the tribes and even that of other cultures when compared to the ancient kings of Persia. The land of the Iranian plateau that Cyrus the Great settled was made up of vast numbers of tribes, after establishing Persia, Cyrus conquered Babylon in 538 BCE. The ancient Persian kings continued on and conquered territories as far as Egypt, but the striking contrast between the kingship of the ancient Persians and the Pahlavi’s in the 20th century is that the ancient kings did not actually force, for example, the Egyptians to adopt Persian lifestyles.

Raza Shah Military Commander

Ancient Persia

The genius of the ancient Persian kings according to Dr. Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones, was that they allowed for a great deal of multiculturalism among its wide multiethnic Empire. In some respects Reza Shah took on the cultural practices of the western countries he only intended to develop diplomatic relations with, but as he attempted to force western ideology on the country as a whole resistance grew.

“[The ancient Persian Empire] runs so well because the empire, maintained at its heart in central Iran, employs Satraps, so governors, to rule in different parts of the empire.  So there’s a central core government constantly in touch with the Satraps who are ruling in the name of the king. The Persians allow indigenous languages to flourish, indigenous cultures to flourish, and in fact what’s remarkable about the Achaemenids is that they draw constantly on all of these different traditions” –Dr. Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones.

The ancient Persians didn’t force the issue of conformity throughout the empire which helped them maintain peace across its vast territories. Reza Shah provoked tribes like the Bakhtiari and the Qashqai in the 1920 and 1930s to fight for their territory and customs as the Iranian army sought to settle them on farmland. This was especially galling for the tribes considering that for centuries they had been the main defenders of the country’s borders as during previous dynasties there was no central army. At times they were also used against ruling dynasties by outside powers like Russia. Known for their horse riding, rifle smuggling, and hunting skills, these tribes made for a formidable strength in mountainous terrain. In 1925, Reza Khan, later Shah, littered the countryside with papers calling for the tribes to settle.

Oh, my zealous children! In the present epoch there remain on the historical scene no traces of the signs of savagery and other barbarity, and today, when even the blacks and beasts of Africa have elected the paths of progress and advancement, it in neither permitted nor appropriate that the sons of the ancient land of Iran, with its resplendent historical tradition and civilization, should still roam and wander like savage beasts across the deserts and mountains. All of the you must abandon this wandering and nomadic existence and resume once more that mode of life of your illustrious forebears who caused cities to flourish and prosper.

—Reza Khan, Commander – in – Chief of the Armed Forces

 

Reza Shah a dictator or the man responsible for a golden age in Iran?

Reza Shah’s government and the army was successful in suppressing tribal opposition, organized communism, and much of the democratic process. By the time of Reza Shah’s more progressive reforms, little opposition was found in the country. In WWII, the practice of settling the tribes was reversed. Reza Shah abdicated the throne and his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was made king in 1941. While Reza Shah’s transformation of Iran is seen as a major modern movement in Iran today, it is also still lamented by others as a dictatorship.

 

Source  | Source  | Source  

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.

Archival Scholars Provide a New Outlook on the 1979 Iranian Revolution

1979 Iranian Revolution
Credit: CNN

Archival Scholars Provide a New Outlook on the 1979 Iranian Revolution

Dr. Ervand Abrahamian

The major event in modern Iranian history is the 1979 revolution sometimes known as the Islamic Revolution.  The roots of this revolution are debatable.  There are different theories, interpretations of what brought about the revolution.  One obvious issue is the economic crisis, the economic dislocations in 1977, ‘78, the difficulties of inflation, of unemployment, of disruptions in the economic situation in the country.  This is, obviously, very much associated with the 1979 revolution. Now, what caused those economic crisis is then controversial.

Some people argued that it was the slight decline in oil revenues because the Saudis were flooding the market with oil.  This caused the decline in oil prices and this, then, fueled the economic crisis in Iran.  I would argue that, actually, the fall in oil prices and oil revenues was not that great to cause a revolution in Iran.  This was a minor, really, decline in general increase in oil prices, oil revenues. So, there were economic problems in 1978, ’79 but there weren’t really so much due to the slight fall in oil revenues.

There is also, I think, the very, the shadow of the 1953 coup because the national hero of the country, Mossaddegh, was overthrown by the coup, by the Shah.  The Shah was seen from ’53, in a way, part mainly as illegitimate.  He’d come to power by overthrowing the national leader and in an age of nationalism, of course, national ideology, national legitimacy can carry much more weight than the weight of a medieval monarchy. The other factor that compounded this was, of course, in the nature of nationalism.  The Shah had been brought back by the imperial powers, by Britain and the United States.  Therefore, the Shah from ’53 onwards was seen as a stooge of foreign powers and therefore, by definition, lacked legitimacy.

The [1979 revolution] obviously had many different currents in it.  On one hand, you had conservative clerics, some of them to the notion of velayat-e faqih, some not subscribing to it but still thinking in terms of a clerical republic.  Then, you had much more liberal, secular thinkers who thought they would have much more of a democratic western oriented state. And as long as there was the war, there was external crisis, these differences were, in a way, muted, but with the end of the Iraqi war and the death of Khomeini, what you find is that in Iranian politics, you get eventually a division, what you could call — one could call on one hand, conservative clerical.  On the other hand, much more liberal, but they don’t like to use the word liberal.  It sounds western, so terms of either progressive or reformist.

Dr. Ali Ansari

And then in September 1980, Saddam Hussein did the invasion, he thinks it’s gonna be quick and easy, he launches the invasion through the plains of Khuzistan, through Kharomshar, to the Iranian oil industry in Abadan and other places.  What he didn’t really anticipate was the reaction that the Revolution would have towards him, and in actual fact made the mortal comment that the war in essence was a blessing.  Now, people have criticized Khomeini for this comment, because they said, “How can any war be a blessing?”  The reason was, the Khomeini felt that actually now we had an external enemy – all fighting could cease, and everyone could turn their attention to the Iraqis.

Dr. Siavush Randjbar-Daemi

So in 1979 when the revolution succeeds the papers are full of this mythology of the martyrs, of the shahids, and the shahids were by and large mujahids and fadaists.  They were not Khomeinists.  There were very few clerics amongst them.  There were very few members of the National Front amongst them. None of the leaders of the Nasat Hosedi and very few Tudeh’s passed the decimation of the Tudeh military network in the ‘50s and this is a deficit which the front loyal to Khomeini had to contend with after 1979, the deficit of martyrs, if you would. So the revolution of 1979 comes to an end, achieving its main aim which was that of bringing down the shah, bringing to fruition the main slogan uttered in the streets, mar ba shah, but it also contained a major challenge, how exactly to replace the monarchy.  That was the thing that united everyone:  unified hatred for the shah, desire to unseat the Shah and bring an end to the monarchy entirely. Not replacing the Shah with a regency council as Mosaddegh tentatively at the very end of his Prime Ministerial tenure had tried to do and so forth. So the question now beckoned as to what would be the form and structure of the new political system that would replace the monarchy?  Our republic was the natural outcome because of the very fact that the republic is the antithesis of a monarchy, and the struggle was for an end to the monarchy, to the reign of, one, Reza Shah Pahlevi and to the monarchy in a broader way.

Dr. Judith Yaphe

I don’t think that they had any arms, as such, which raises a larger story about how this war was financed and fought.  The Iranians couldn’t borrow because Khomeini didn’t believe in borrowing, so effectually, they had to pay for the war as they bought things, but they were under embargo and they were under an arms embargo by the United States from the day the hostages in the embassy were taken in 1979.  So that meant they couldn’t buy certainly American equipment.  Why is that important?  Almost their entire inventory, military hardware, software, weapons systems, especially airplanes and other arms, were American, and if you can’t replace them what do you do? Now, it is interesting and it is becoming general knowledge how much the Israelis helped them beginning in the early days of the war, that they provided them with American equipment because they were about the only other ones who had that and were willing to do that.  So they were selling their arms. But they couldn’t – in other words, they could not go out and shop – they could only get what they could get on the black or gray arms market. The Iraqis could buy anywhere, they could shop till they dropped.  You had Iraqis going out with suitcases full of money to buy all kinds of weapons systems including the beginnings of their weapons of mass destruction programs.  They could buy chemical.  They even bought biological agent in the United States for their experiments, for their WMD development, and they were looking for nuclear as well, although that was harder for them to get, but if a government is determined to get something it will.

The Iranian ambassador, after the revolution, in Lebanon and in Syria are activists, very much believing in the export of the revolution and they and the IRGC combine to create Hezbollah in Lebanon.  Now, I had mentioned earlier this cleric Musa al-Sadr, Iranian origin – Lebanese but also of Iranian origin, had been trained in Najaf and other places.  A very famous, very prominent family, Sadr is a very famous name in Shia clerical, it’s one of the major families, many branches.  You have a very activist branch in Iraq today, the Sadrs. He creates this organization among the poor Shia of Lebanon, Amal.  He becomes a very powerful, popular, charismatic leader, but there are people in Amal who are a little bit disappointed that it’s not activist enough, perhaps, and in the early ’80s, with – especially with the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, very famous, that’s where the Israeli army under Sharon goes up to Beirut.  They allow the Christian militias into sovereign Shatila camps.  There’s the massacre. One of the reactions to all of this was the creation of Hezbollah, created to a great extent – again, by the Iranians, by the IRGC commander, and this was early days for this group, and there is a famous part of that group called the Quds force.  Now, Quds is the Arabic name for Jerusalem.  It’s also used in Persian as well.  Jerusalem is al-Quds, the holy.  So they recruit and draw in Hezbollah.  Hezbollah, as a beginning organization, follows a pattern – it becomes an established pattern.  It’s one that is followed by many semi-clandestine, semi-overt organizations.  Muslim Brotherhood will begin the same way, back in the 1920s in Egypt.  In other words, you have an overt organization dedicated to good works, mosques, helping the poor, orphans, widows, subsidies to families, proper cover hijab and veils, abaya or chador, if you will, for women, transportation, schools, education, housing, all of those good social services and they’re mosque-based and it’s social welfare. And this is one of the things that Amal did and made it so popular.  This is what begins Hezbollah, but the other side of it that the mosques and these contacts are used as places where recruitment takes place, spotting, for the clandestine side of Hezbollah, for what becomes the terrorist wing.  I have trouble saying it.  And they recruit among young Lebanese Shia and it grows rapidly, and they draw a – there are a number of recruits who come out of the PLO movements.

The Challenges of Continuity for Regime Change in Iran from Within

The Challenges of Continuity for Regime Change in Iran from Within

IRGC

Iran Post IRGC

With the ongoing possibility of an Iranian regime change it is worth discussing some of the challenges of change and continuity with respect to the existing power structure of the IRGC. Currently, the financial wealth of Iran is consolidated in either the IRGC or that of the Supreme Leader’s religious establishment. These two groups own and operate the majority of the country’s public and private economic institutions such as banks, oil, and construction companies. Many of these companies are in fact extra-constitutional organizations operating in the guise of private trade, but in fact, controlled by the Iranian government. Therefore the problem with reform or a soft regime change is the danger of this status quo being allowed to continue under a new form of the same old players, and this is what Iranians fear particularly with the IRGC. Taking possession of the banks and freezing account activity even for a limited amount of time could have devastating effects on the civilian population.

Recently in the online chatter surrounding the news of Trump and Putin, some discussion has acknowledged an interest to bring key players to justice who were involved in corruption going back to after the collapse of Soviet Russia when the private sector was being installed in the new Russian Federation. Putin is on a manhunt to sort out key benefactors who were selling Russia out around that time. The basic conundrum for any communist economy to suddenly privatize property is that the people of that country are too impoverished to purchase the country’s major enterprises and the opportunity to sell off these enterprises to foreign buyers would, in fact, be selling off the country to foreign interests who would ultimately have control of it. From 1989-1991 the Soviet Union was being dissolved and undergoing a soft transition to becoming the Russian Federation. Russia’s major assets were devalued artificially in order to avoid foreign control of the country’s industries. The Islamic Republic followed suit at the same time to transition from its communist economy to private trade as a postwar economy.

 

Privatization, the Erecting of Two Structural Columns of Power in Iran

In 1979, the Islamic Revolution in Iran took possession of all private companies and wealth nationalizing them. Foreign investors were squeezed out with astronomical losses for which they turned around and sued the Islamic Republic. These lawsuits were all settled in the Hague with the exception of a dispute over Iran’s FMS account.  The Islamic Republic used a communist economy to fuel the Iran-Iraq War and during the war, as Iran was under trade embargoes from the US, it secured commodities by establishing a significant black market network which was organized in part by the IRGC. At the end of the war, it was determined that a communist economy could not support the country after all, and Iran took steps to privatize its enterprises at the same time Russia was also doing so while these two countries entered into a major contract to rebuild the Bushehr nuclear energy facility for a large sum of money from Iran which Russia desperately needed at the time. It is worth asking rhetorically here, where did essentially two nearly bankrupt states get the money for such a large construction contract?

To privatize property In Iran, major enterprises were sold off to key players of either the religious establishment or Revolutionary Guards creating 2 groups of power financially and politically. At times, these establishments have been in competition with one another and at other times have combined strength against internal or external forces. The IRGC’s vast network has made it the leading exporter of oil in Iran and has developed global ties to skirt sanctions. In the long-term, the IRGC has benefited from sanctions on Iran.

 

Private Companies as Extrajudicial Government Organizations in Iran

Central bank of Iran (Markazi), Tehran, Iran. (Orijentolog via Wikimedia Commons)

Central bank of Iran (Markazi), Tehran, Iran. July 14, 2011. Photo: Orijentolog via Wikimedia Commons.

 

The nuclear agreement negotiated by Rouhani for the Supreme Leader Khamenei in some respects strengthened the religious establishment by allowing trade in Iran to compete with the IRGC and slowly chip away at its financial hold on the country while in the short term strengthened its power in the region by using the frozen assets as large cash injections in tandem with delisted and freed players for the IRGC and military to gain valuable footholds in the region particularly in Syria and Lebanon cutting off Iraqi and Saudi access to the Mediterranean Sea while maintaining a constant pressure on Israel, and Yemen (cutting off Saudi and Israeli access to the Red Sea). Rouhani, brilliant as he was in handling the nuclear file to make advances in missile guidance and satellite technology under the ruse of non-enrichment, miscalculated a few things.

In order for the Islamic Republic to get around some of its trade hindrances stemming from the Islamic integrity of its constitution from its inception, it created a number of extrajudicial entities and enterprises. These were involved in credit, banking, and investment services outside the parameters of Islamic requirements in its codified law. A prime example is Bank Markazi, also known as Bank Melli, Iran’s national bank. One of the reasons it was in Iran’s interest to privatize its banks was to show these institutions as non-government and therefore protected from terrorism litigation where Iran’s defense could argue that the accused entity operated independently from the Islamic Republic and therefore the Islamic Republic could not be held accountable. Often times in terrorism litigation it was ruled that the Bank Markazi was separate from the Islamic Republic, however, that decision was incorrect, because Bank Markazi routinely drafts and enforces financial regulations for all banking institutions in the country, it could be seen essentially as a Treasury Department for the Islamic Republic of Iran.

“In many respects, the Central Bank of Iran functions similar to the Treasury Department in the United States. It issues licenses for private banks, including foreign banks, it deals with the ‘modality and conditions for inflow of capital endowed by foreign banks.’” Dr. John Vavai.

The nuclear agreement further delisted this and other organizations as state sponsors of terrorism and actors engaged in illicit weapons and other trafficking and removed sanctions. However, banking and investment practices continued to form major stumbling blocks for Iran’s international trade with Europe under the nuclear agreement. While the nuclear agreement lifted some sanctions, it did not remedy legal shortcomings in Iran’s legal and banking systems that would present problems for international trade. A symptom of this can be seen in the volume of arbitration that occurs between Iran based companies and foreign companies outside of Iran.

 

How Iranian Opposition Could Prevent IRGC Continuity in Form of New Regime

Even with IRGC military and economic entrenchment in Iran and the region, there may still be a way for Iranian factions inside who want regime change from within to counter this force. This would require Iranian opposition to the regime to put pressure on the UN to initiate asset freezes and travel bans among other sanctions and military intervention through R2P doctrine would be a crucial step in paralyzing the regime and assist with regime change. While most Iranians are against any form of sanctions, sanctions could actually work in their favor in the event of an attempt at regime change and pave the way for an IRGC free Iran in which assets, as well as its FMS account, could then be restored to the Iranian people.

An update from Archival Fellow Dr. Vafai

Corruption in the Islamic Republic of Iran is not only pervasive but is also institutional and politically organized. Two credible studies indicate the degree of Iran’s institutional corruption.

First,  “The  Money Laundering Index” (AML Index Point),annually prepared by the Switzerland’s Basel Institute, indicates that  at the end of 2017, of all the 146 countries of the world under evaluation, Iran’s money laundering index was 8.60—the highest in the world (The lowest rate for the same year was Finland with 3.04 index point).

Second, according to Transparency International– an international think tank organization which does research on corruption throughout the world–the rank of Iran’s corruption in 2017, was 130. This rank was equivalent to countries such as Gambia, and Ukraine. Of the 135 countries in the world subject to research in 2017, only four countries (Honduras, Mexico Kyrgyzstan and the Dominican Republic ) were recognized as more corrupt than the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iran’s corruption became institutionalized at the beginning of the Islamic Revolution and through the Islamic Revolutionary Guards (IRGC).

The Islamic  Revolutionary Guard started at the beginning of Khomeini’s uprising. Ayatollah Khomeini did not trust the Iranian conventional military.

Thus, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards (at the time one thousand in total) were established primarily for maintaining security. The Iran Iraq war was the beginning of the economic blossoming of the IRGC. The Construction Jihad, also known as the Crusade for Reconstruction of Iran, developed exponentially. The IRGC originally served as combat engineers and built roads, bridges, buildings for Iran’s strategic operations and defensive emplacement. At present, the IRGC’s activities are both military and commercial. According to a study by Rand National Defense Research Institute, “from laser eye surgery and construction to automobile manufacturing and real estate, the IRGC has extended its influence into virtually every sector of the Iranian market. The subtext of this apparent economic populism is the IRGC’s control of Iran’s shadow economy. Further,  A substantial degree of Iran’s illicit smuggling networks, kickbacks, no-bid contracts and accumulation of wealth by the commanders and administrators of the IRGC  remains largely unseen by the Iranian public. According to a study by the Foundation for Defense of Democracies, a Washington think tank organization, in recent years “the risks for foreign investors in Iran ….. risks of exposure to money-laundering, and terror finance ……have only increased. The Revolutionary Guard lies at the heart of these risks. The IRGC launders money from the “legitimate” business to fund its illicit activities; it finances terrorist groups across the world; and it enriches itself at the expense of the Iranian people through corruption and kleptocracy”.

The fact is that, contrary to common belief, the imposition of sanctions against Iran could result in substantial profits in terms of economic rent, for the IRGC or its affiliated groups. This point needs an explanation. As a result of President Trump’s decision to discontinue the nuclear deal with Iran and subsequent re-imposition of the U.S. sanction, Iran will not have the customary and institutionally recognized credit access to large global banks. In the past, that is, prior to lifting the sanctions by the Obama administration, the IRGC’s affiliates such as Quds Force engaged in bartered commodity transactions with various countries. For example, the Iranian supplier, would export crude oil to countries such as Bangladesh or Pakistan, and in turn would receive manufactured products such as computers and electronic gadgets. Transactions on part of the Iran were arranged and implemented by the IRGC or one of its affiliated “nonprofit” organizations. Thus Iran’s corruption in institutional in nature.

Source  | Source |  Source  | Source  |  Source

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.

Two Choke Points Critical for Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Iran Shipping

Two Choke Points Critical for Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Iran Shipping

Iranian Missile Program

The Missile Site Opposite Oman

One of Iran’s most important missile bases sits directly opposite an important loading platform in Oman. This loading platform may act as the main oil export facility in the event Iran closes the Strait of Hormuz for the Arab countries opposite of Iran on the gulf.

Map of Persian Gulf

If Trump uses Iran’s threat to close the strait as a premise to engage Iran at sea to take out Iran’s missile systems, nuclear program, and attempt to bring about a regime change, he will risk diffusing the internal opposition among Iranian society and cause them to rally behind the regime they once protested this happened once before when Saddam Hussein invaded Iran in 1980 ultimately solidifying Khomeini’s position in power.

If Iran closes the Strait of Hormuz and Oman’s oil loading platform becomes the fountainhead of the oil-producing Arab countries, it risks attacks from Iran either at that location or other tactical location(s). Many of the oil pipelines are already routed around Iran as a result of the Iran-Iraq War when Saddam Hussein convinced the Saudis to form the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) in opposition to Iran. Saddam began orchestrating the flow of the oil pipelines in the region in an effort to isolate Iran. So even after the Iran-Iraq War ended, these oil and natural gas pipelines would continue with minimal reach through Iran with the exception of Turkey. The GCC was formed as a military collective between Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman, however, it never achieved substantial military effectiveness relying on the backing of superpowers to protect their interests in the region.

 

The Strategic Interest of the Strait of Bab Al-Hamdb

 

Oil & Gas Pipelines Middle East

Source: Mondialisation.com

Iran’s strategy since the Iran-Iraq war and while under sanctions has been to combat economic isolation by establishing military dominance of major access points for shipping in the Middle East. Competition for the Strait of Bab Al-Hamdb originated in Egypt between the Islamic Republic and its allies and Saudi Arabia. Ultimately, the Islamic Republic’s control of the straight was ended by the United States and Saudi axis in Egypt, and the Islamic Republic turned its focus to the conflict in Yemen and Djibouti, and to some extent Somalia. If the Iran-Hezbollah-Assad axis takes control of the strait Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt access to the Gulf of Aden through the Red sea will be at the behest of Iran-Hezbollah-Assad axis.

South Front and Al-Arabiya TV reported that Iran backed Houthis refused to withdraw from the strategic Port of Al-Hudaydah on the western coast of Yemen, and a Saudi led coalition is assembling to attempt to secure the Red Sea Shipping Lines on July 28.

 

Source  | Source  | Source

The source South Front ,used in this article, may have ties to the Russian military and is being used to feed misinformation to the world. Read more about how misinformation is being used by governments to alter peoples opinion on various politically hot topics.

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.

Tehran Taboo: Exploring the Daily Struggles of Iranians

Tehran Taboo: Exploring the Daily Struggles of Iranians

Tehran Taboo Iranian Film

A Scene From Tehran Taboo

Set in post-revolutionary Iran, Tehran Taboo is an animated film following the severe hardships people face living in Iran. The film’s poster shows a young couple leaning against a wooden wall engaging in sexual acts, in the background the frowning faces of Iran’s 2 Supreme Leader dictators stare down at them. We are introduced to a young struggling musician who is trying to save enough money so he can pay for a black market surgery for a girl he just had sex with. She wants a medical procedure that will turn her into a virgin again so that she can sell herself to a sex trafficker and escape the country.

Tehran Taboo Film Poster

It’s late in the evening and the profile of a crowded, dilapidated, apartment complex stands sullenly in the polluted city of Tehran. On the roof, a neon sign buzzes and flashes angrily. A mute boy is sitting on a sagging balcony watching a starving cat. An old woman complains about the cats saying they are an infestation in the apartment complex. The small black cat is skeptical, wary of the boy’s affection. The boy puts out a small piece of meat and watches while the cat timidly approaches.

 

The Merciful End

The old woman swoops up the cat while its distracted by the meat and tosses it into a plastic garbage bag. Crossing the room she throws the cat and bag outside onto the street while the boy watches passively at the inhumane scene playing out before him. As the night grows heavier, the cat crouches in the plastic bag waiting. The maintenance man, middle-aged, weary of work and stress, picks up the bag with the cat in it and heads for the large dumpster at the end of the street. The cat cries out trying to escape while the man dispassionately looks on and recalls an earlier conversation with a doctor. A pregnancy, an unwed mother, the father’s shame, and the high cost of an abortion.

Slamming the bag with the cat over and over again on the metal wall of the dumpster bin the thrashing cat dies an agonizing death leaving this world with a terrified yowl. Opening the lid of the trash bin he tosses the trash bag filled with the lifeless body of the cat and after a short pause filled with his despair he confesses to the stray cat he had killed, “I wish I were you.”

 

The Language of Adversity

The cat that died was a representation of Iran, the countries border mimics the outline of a cat, such is the symbolism that underpins many Iranian films with lamentations on the quality of life in post-revolutionary Iranian society. Confrontations with the Morality Police, problems in marriage and gender segregation, the secret lives of sex workers, youth and innocence are some of the expressions reaching across the borders of Iran. Much of what happens in closed bordered societies the rest of the world is unable to see and understand until long after those regimes collapse. This was the case for many art films and artistic media from Russia that express deep regrets of the dreary Soviet “situation.” With Iran, technology has thwarted both the production of artistic media and the distribution of it globally. Today’s challenge, however, is still overcoming the massive propaganda and information campaigns run by mainstream and state media internationally.

In part, this is why the creators of Archival Institute took on the prodigious task of documenting Iran’s illustrious history. Filled with war, economic and political upheaval, and a nation’s rediscovery of national identity Iran is a complex country that has never been properly documented. Iran: The Third Path is a series that sets out to provide a historian’s view of the events that have shaped Iran into the country it is today.

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.

Reza Shah Iconic Hero to Modern Iranian Protestors

Reza Shah Iconic Hero to Modern Iranian Protestors

“Reza Shah, God Bless Your Soul” Shouted from Streets of Iran

The strong confident face of the ongoing Iran protests is the wise father of modern Iran. Protesters shouting, “Reza Shah, God bless your soul,”mark the time in Iran’s recent history when the country was importing western medicine, amplifying education efforts, developing the country’s industrial infrastructure for clean water, roads, and railroad transportation, and establishing a modern industrial army paid for by a booming oil economy. Protesters Iran today see Reza Shah’s reign from 1925 to 1941 as a golden age of advancement and peace.

Reza Shah Protestors Sign

The Persian king entrusted many aspects of the rule of law to another man, Ali Akbar Davar, and together they formed a largely secular legal system at the heart of this golden age. The legal system borrowed some elements from the French judicial system and required religious clergy practicing law graduate from university law schools rather than the traditional theological schools that trained in Islamic law. Today’s secular protesters regard the peace and prosperity of Iran to be synonymous with a quiet clergy. Muslim reformers center on the economic prosperity of Reza Shah’s reign to be synonymous with a nongovernmental clergy.

Modernization of Iran

Reza Shah is known for creating Iran’s modern army and suppressing communism in Iran. The army presented a fantastic challenge for previous kings. When the king of Persia, Nasr al-Din Shah, wanted to create a modern army in the 1800s. The region was heavily colonized except for 6 countries including Persia which had diplomatic relations with Britain, Russia, Belgium, and others. Foreign support was provided to help build the first modern army for Persia, however, it was discovered was that the country did not have enough educated males in the native population to form such a force. The men needed to learn to read and write, solve mathematical problems, treat wounded, and engineering. Historians estimate that in the early 20th century less than 1% of the population could read and write. Education of Iranians was a product of traditional Islamic schools and these madrassas and hawzas did not provide teachings on modern science and medicine. A military academy, Dar al Funun, was formed to educate Iranian men providing teachings in all modern subjects including modern warfare tactics. 

However, the graduates of the military academy, Dal al Funun, instead of founding a great army joined the larger international Modern Education Movement to educate the masses. Since the Qajar monarchy in Persia was so impoverished, the movement took on a grassroots shape. When students went abroad, they were exposed to alternative histories written by intellectuals in the west. Foreign accounts of Persian history that were critical of the Qajar monarchy were translated into Persian and circulated within Persian society inciting Persians to document their own critical histories until an awakening was born for social, economic, and political change. The new intelligentsia formed modern schools opened the first independent newspapers and educational opportunities were created for women. More critical historical accounts of the Qajar’s court evolved into an awakening for social, economic, and political change in Persia among elites and common folk.

 

Secret societies formed as platforms for debate and activism for change in the ruling law to advance the country and resist colonial pressure. Constitutionalism was growing in Persia and the surrounding regions. Ultimately, the constitutionalists were able to bring the monarchy around to adopting a constitution and a parliament through revolution and civil war. As the new government stressed by loans from Russia and Britain with interest it could never pay back, a new financial system was desperately needed. This lead to a major confrontation with Russia, and in turn to northern Iran being colonized by an estimated 4,000 Russian settlers. Constitutionalism endured and it was in part to this political activist group that would help bring Reza Khan to power.

Rise to Power

In WWI, Reza Khan was making a name for himself as a competent military commander. During WWI Russia had its own civil war and the Tsar was overthrown and the Bolsheviks took power. Meanwhile, in Persia, Russia was encouraging separatist movements and the Persian monarchy, alongside the British, were backing Russia’s white army. Leftists in Iran were backing Russia’s Red army but Reza Khan famously suppressed the threat against Russia from the leftists and Reza Khan became a strong contender for the Persian throne. With the backing of Iran’s constitutionalist elites and Britain, Reza Khan seized power in a coup and eventually crowned himself King becoming Reza Shah.

He quickly set about building a modern army which ultimately leads to renegotiating oil terms with Britain in order to pay for it. He spent his reign unifying the country and implementing many western reforms while continuing to suppress ongoing leftist movements.

Source  | Source  | Source  | Source  |  Source 

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.

Water Shortage, Anti-Iran Protests, & Oil Trade Instability puts Pressure on Iran

Water Shortage, Anti-Iran Protests, & Oil Trade Instability puts Pressure on Iran

Iranian Women in dry lakebed
Source: Tehran Times

Turkey Set to Starve Iran of Water

The Financial Times on July 6th reported rising tension between Iran and Turkey over a water crisis. Water shortage is no stranger to the Middle East currently North Africa, the Arab States, Iran, Pakistan, India, and some former Soviet states are in a drought that has lasted many years with reservoirs dried up and no end in site.

“Unlike most of its neighbors, however, Turkey has enough water inside its borders, which might explain part of the Erdogan government’s seeming overconfidence,” wrote John Dizard.

So why is a water drought in Iran and surrounding countries involving a Turkish water supply? Turkey happens to be where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers originate and flow down to Syria, Iraq, and Iran. Iran is taking Turkey to court to urge, through the judicial system, President Erdogan to release water held in Turkish reservoirs to help Iran. Currently, much of Iran’s oil facilities are threatened by the water shortage, in response to the threat to Iran’s oil industry the government has chosen to lower food production meaning they are reducing the water available for farming the result has increased desertification in the water-starved country. Desertification has caused salt from the flats to blow into once fertile cropland killing off what remains of Iran’s farming industry. Since December of 2017 farmers have vehemently protested the governments singular focus on the oil industry but almost eight months later there has been no change in the governments position causing many farmers to give up and move into cities. However, it isn’t just Iran suffering these issues but also Iraq who shares a border with Iran and Iranian issues surrounding the drought have started to seep over into Iraq. 

 

Protests in Iraq Burn Iran-Leaning Offices

July 19 Al Jazeera reported anti-Iranian sentiments appearing in Iraq as water shortages, high unemployment rate, corruption in all levels of government and business, and geopolitical splinters bolster crowds to burn down party offices of conservative Iranian and Hezbollah supporting groups like the Khazali Network and the Hezbollah Brigade. 

“While there has indeed been plenty of anti-Iranian sentiment in these protests with images of Ayatollah Khomeini being set alight and anti-Iranian slogans being voiced,… anti-Iranian sentiment, in this case, is a by-product (not a driver) of rage against the entire Iraqi political order,” reported Fanar Haddad.

The Iraqi government has tried to suppress the protests with force and also with appeasements allocating funds for projects that may ease the pain of struggle in the living conditions there. Nevertheless, the Iraqi government has become less friendly with the Islamic Republic.

The Arab/Persian Gulf Could See Fire in Strait

Yesterday Archival On Demand reported on Iran facing U.S. sanctions along with the looming threat of closing the Strait of Hormuz likely means we could see a return to missile strikes aimed at shipping lines and oil infrastructure along the shorelines of the gulf. This also occurred during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War. Iran’s prevention of the Arab states to use the Strait to export their oil would put Iran in direct confrontation with not only the US and UK but the GCC exporting countries as well. An oil blockade on a heavily sanctioned Iran would provide opportunity for onboard inspections, something that could severely jeopardize Iran’s illicit black markets. Pressure is now mounting on three major borders of Iran.

The IRGC would likely be tasked with closing the Strait. The IRGC in Iran is a parallel military arm of the Islamic Republic tasked with defending the Islamic Revolution. While Iran maintains a conventional army, navy, and air-force, so too does the IRGC. The IRGC is one of the most dominant forces in the region militarily and economically. It is also the leading exporter of oil from Iran. The IRGC is positioned to take power in Iran in the event of an assassination of the Supreme Leader Khamenei. For this reason, many in Iran fear the installment of the Revolutionary Guards as a new regime. If the IRGC close the Strait, the GCC does not have the military power to confront Iran and will rely on western power protect their oil exports and imports of other essential commodities. This threat has produced the first weekly gain in 4 weeks in oil prices. 

Source  |  Source  | Source  | Source  | Source

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.

Trump Sanctions on Iran lead to threats to close Strait of Hormuz

Trump Sanctions on Iran lead to threats to close Strait of Hormuz

China Oil Storage Tanks

China’s Unofficial Drawdown of Oil Storage

 

President Trump’s decision to withdraw the U.S. from the Iran Nuclear Deal is part of his plan to impose maximum pressure on Iran with an over all goal to reduce Iranian oil customers to zero by November 2, 2018. Concerns are being raised that Trump’s sanctions, and pressure on his allies to not buy Iranian oil, would plunge the world into recession destabilising the oil market and sending oil prices sky high. Barbara Slavin, director of the Future of Iran Initiative within the Atlantic Council, weighed in on the matter agreeing that there is a great possibility of a global recession with her concerns being echoed by other leading oil & gas experts. However, a satellite image was posted by TankerTrackers comparing July 2017 data to July 2018 against official reports. The satellite images show a massive drawdown of crude oil being stored in China over the last year while the official reports say the opposite.

Satellites to Track Commodities

Satellite images are used by companies like Orbital and Bloomberg to asses the actual volume and flow of oil globally and this isn’t the first time that its been reported that China’s actual numbers differ from what they officially report. China’s drawdown in crude oil storage is timely with the loss of Iranian oil and coming sanctions. How many sites may indicate further supply discrepancies and will Iran’s oil truly be missed?

Iran, in counter suite to President Trump’s most recent power play, has been frantically meeting with other nations in attempts to secure trade deals before Trump’s sanctions go into effect. From meetings with Switzerland and Austria to discussions with Russia on investing in Iran’s oil industry Iran’s incompatibility with other nations legal systems is severely reducing the probability of Iran being able to close a trade deal before the sanctions go into effect.

TWITTER ENTENTE Between Rouhani and Trump

“America should know that peace with Iran is the mother of all peace and war with Iran is the mother of all wars.” — Rouhani

“NEVER EVER THREATEN THE UNITED STATES AGAIN… WE ARE NO LONGER A COUNTRY THAT WILL STAND FOR YOUR DEMENTED WORDS OF VIOLENCE AND DEATH.” — President Donald Trump

Imagine reading these tweets as a soldier on a ship in the Strait of Hormuz. Iranians are threatening that if Iran isn’t able to export oil then no other country will be allowed to do so. Iran’s military strength to actually close the Strait of Hormuz has been debated in the media but according to this article that cites a U.S. Naval intelligence report if you combine all the recent efforts of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps’ (IRGC) naval division they will have enough manpower through modern fast attack craft, small boats, and anti-ship cruise missiles and mines that within the small confines of the Strait they would have a good chance of closing it, at least for a time.

The Curses of Isolation

Iran is down to the wire with sanctions going into effect in just a few short weeks and with the media pressure on Iran to respond to Trump’s power play Iranian national security official Naghavi Hosseini told the Al Jazeera that “the United States will only hurt and isolate itself with these sanctions. Europe, China, and Russia, according to Iranian government, still have interest in trade agreements with Iran.” Some of these countries are asking for waivers from sanctions. Now this could allow for trade agreements to move ahead, though even with waivers, companies still face issues with difficulties in banking, credit, intellectual property, shipping, and other areas. These were experienced in some of the trade deals that emerged from 2015. Isolation in truth goes both ways.

 

Source 1

Source 2

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.

Evidence Shows Iran may be Instigating Conflict Between Israel & Syria

Evidence Shows Iran may be Instigating Conflict Between Israel & Syria

Golan Heights

Syrian Jet Shot Down

Multiple media agencies have reported on the Israeli Defense Forces tweet after shooting down a Sukho fighter jet. On Monday, Israel began using its new David’s Sling missile-defense system for the first time. The fighter jet had come from a base known for housing Iranian military assets known as the T-4 base which has been the target of a number of hits over the last year. Hostilities on the Israeli-Syrian border along the Golan Heights are at risk of breaching the 1974 ceasefire agreement Israel says it will not tolerate. ISIS attacks have followed in Syria.

 

200 Dead after ISIS Attack in Al-Sweida

Tweet from Danny Makki

The ISIS attacks have claimed 200 in Al-Sweida. Russia responded with attacks on ISIS: “the Russian Aerospace Forces hit the Islamic State from the air, the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) has been striking the terrorist group from the ground, reported Al Masdar News.

Charles Shoebridge former army officer, Scotland Yard detective, and counter terrorism intelligence officer tweeted that Syrian warplane was fighting the Islamic State.

Note the #Syria warplane #Israel downed today was fighting Islamic State. This is consistent with the de facto alliance existing now for years between Israel and IS & alQaeda, regardless of 9/11, 7/7, Madrid, Bali, Paris, Manchester etc . — Charles Shoebridge

In fact, the territory of the Golan Heights held by opposition groups to Assad, Iran, and Hezbollah creates a buffer between Israel and Syria. The jet sent into this territory perhaps was designed to provoke Israel to fire into Assad’s enemy camps along the boarder rather than a direct attack on his these enemies within.

 

Iran and Hezbollah Provoke Israel Fire into Golan Heights

Two groups hold the Syrian Golan Heights according to Nitzan Nuriel (Brig. Gen. Res.), Former Director of the Counter-Terrorism Bureau and Associate at the International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT). The Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade and the Al-Nusra Front. While the latter identifies with the Islamic State, the former works against the shiite solidarity between Iran, Hezbollah, and Assad. Iran and Hezbollah have surmised that if they attack from the Golan Heights, Israel will respond with attacks on these two groups in the Golan Heights. Further, Iran’s presence in Golan Heights was expected to increase as long as Assad was unable to recapture that area which would require the cooperation of Israel for planes to flow that close to their airspace.

“Of course, this does not mean that Israel will help global terrorist organizations in their battle against Assad but should a Syrian plane enter its air space, Israel will not hesitate to bring it down. In other words, Israel will make it as difficult for the Syrians as possible to capture the Syrian Golan Heights,” predicted Nitzan Nuriel (Brig. Gen. Res.) in 2017.

This explains the dynamics of the Syrian aircraft which originated from a base known as an Iranian stronghold and was shot down recently by Israel’s new missile defense system and a clear indication that Israel is not cooperating with the Assad regime to take back the Golan Heights as long as these two groups are not directly hostile to Israel. It also points more to the stand-off between Assad and the 2 groups occupying the Golan Heights, the Yarmouk Martyrs Brigade and the Al-Nusra Front, than it does Syria and Israel. 

 

Source 1  | Source 2  | Source 3  | Source 4  | Source 5

Facebook4k
Facebook
YouTube780
YouTube
Google+
Google+

Recently Published Articles

Subscribe to Archival on Demand!

History and news of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa straight to your inbox!

Learn more about Archival Institutes Mini-Series Iran: The Third Path

Producing a groundbreaking historical series, the Archival Institute has brought to life Iran’s history using narrative animation and documentary culminating in the release of Iran: The Third Path, which is now available for purchase through Archival on Demand. Committed to educating and entertaining audiences worldwide Archival on Demand is a multimedia streaming platform, including written and video content, for world history focused on the Middle East, Asia, and Africa, some of the most conflict heavy regions of today. The release of the documentary series Iran: The Third Path will provide historical context for Iran’s current internal conflicts and international rivalries. These long-standing cultural clashes include democratic social movements, the evolution of political and militant Islam, economic struggle, and relations with superpowers throughout the events of the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, WWI and WWII, the Cold War, the global conflicts of today.