AID programming provides a variety of relief measures to local populations such as food and medicine, shelter and supplies, protection services, and even direct cash transfers year after year. In spite of this AID meant to ease the suffering of victim populations in these areas, insurgents appear to be gaining and extending their strength through their expanding interconnections. Ties discovered between AQIM and Sahrawi refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria show that relief measures, while mismanaged and unprotected, are attributing to the further entrenchment of terrorist control.
Reports that AQIM gained access to weapons such as small arms and machine-guns and surface-to-air missiles circulated in 2011, in spite of a coordinated and engaged military presence, following a Sahel-Saharan security summit in 2010 in which Algeria, Mali, Niger, and Mauritania tried to combat terrorism, organized crime, arms smuggling and kidnapping. What has hampered investigations and enforcement of counterterrorism measures is a weak and disjointed collective response in the application of the international rule of law, its forensics, and courts.
According to this study, “International community has never succeeded in developing an accepted comprehensive definition of terrorism. During the 1970 and 1980, the United Nations attempt to define the term foundered mainly due to differences of opinion between members about the use of violence in the context of conflicts over national liberations and self determination. This divergence has made it impossible to conclude on a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.”
Since this time, the existence of multiple definitions of terror each countering each other have delayed the arrival of effective legal remedies, while the global terror network only continues to grow.
A New Defensive Strategy Followed by Smart AID and Smart Cities
While it has been estimated that these geographic areas represent where the next century of conflict will likely be taking place, efforts are underway to challenge the continuation of this status quo. Anti-corruption and counterterrorism measures are evolving in the realms of international relations, towards increased awareness, new and improved forms of engagement, and technological advantages which may succeed in countering the advancement of this global threat which has impacted life on every continent.
Public-private partnerships play a big role in recovery for these regions and their continued safety. This process has already begun with some European countries closing their borders followed by the US having fueled an internationally heated migration battle, but ongoing efforts understand and treat problems of migration also continue to drive foreign support across continents. Nanotechnology solutions and smart applications including cyber access for cities, manufacturing, farming and agriculture, energy, mining, transportation, and banking and credit monitoring are among the initiatives currently being discussed by private and public sector interests as offensive-defensive approaches to tackling the enormous challenges of global security and dwindling natural resources.
China as the fastest developing country in Asia is leading this initiative in Nigeria, which is the fastest developing country in Africa, with a recent 2.4bn currency swap to compete against the dollar. In 2016, the Abuja-Kaduna railway was commissioned, in 2017 the Lagos-Ibadan railway began construction, and the Abuja rail mass transit project was commissioned earlier this year. China is preparing to loan 100bn to Nigeria for infrastructure and trade after the Beijing Summit. Nigeria is regarded as the gateway to the continent, rich in natural resources like oil, and population roughly the same size as the Russian Federation. Nigeria-Russian relations include a 2012 nuclear energy agreement to design, develop, construct, operate and commission a nuclear power plant by 2025.
While the lack of regulation has provided the draw for foreign private-sector investment, abroad lured by increased profits and multinational growth potential in the security and infrastructure domain, the public-private engagement should be carefully engineered, with competitive interests and anti-corruption cross-checks and balances built in.
To ensure that developing countries reach important benchmarks for success and that superpowers do not become overstressed in their support, pressure should be applied internationally to incentivize AID, security, and investment programs. These transnational programs should be earned, with beneficiary countries encouraged at the local and state level to disavow and turn away from the support of terror and from any groups which may aid and abet the spread of such destabilization. Having elicited co-operation of the people at the community grass-roots level , versus solely punitive counterterrorism measures by the state military apparatus, it is suggested that the model of earned aid provides a greater guarantee for the success of continued growth and sustainability of vulnerable regions, such as Africa’s Arc of Instability.
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