Persian Voices: War Against Imam
In the name of God, the Merciful, the Forgiving. Today the use of tunbaku [tobacco] and tuton [tobacco for the water pipe], in whatever fashion, is reckoned as war against the Imam of the Age (may God hasten his glad advent).
—Fatwa by Mirza Hassan Shirazi
Amirahmadi, Hooshang. (2012). The Political Economy of Iran Under the Qajars: Society, Politics, Economy and Foreign Relations 1799 to 1921. London: I.B. Tauris. Print, p.205.
Editor’s Note: This fatwa confirmed by Shirazi instituted a nationwide boycott of the use or trade of tobacco.