Persian Voices: Dominance of Foreigners

What does this nation say? This nation says that we have concluded a covenant with death; we will not accept dominance of foreigners.

—Haj Seyyed Taqavi, 21 November 1906


Afsaneh, Najmabadi. Women with Mustaches and Men without Beards Gender and Sexual Anxieties Of Iranian Modernity. London: University of California Press, 2005. Page 208. Print.


Editor’s Note: As the parliament emerged with elected deputies from all over Iran including representatives from even nomadic tribes, there were no funds for state-building initiatives, and the new government took out loans from Britain and Russia.