Persian Voices: Freedom Fighters

Our peasants have no knowledge and do not know what the meaning of constitutionalism is. They think it means hoarding other people’s property and not paying the interest due the landlord according to the laws of the sharia… The peasants pay nothing whatsoever and they call themselves Fada’i (Islamic freedom fighter).

—Letter from Minister of Justice, Abd al-Hussain Farmanfarma, to the Majlis


Afary, Janet. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution 1906-1911: Grassroots Democracy, Social Democracy, and the Origins of Feminism page 27-28. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Page 164. Print.


Editor’s Note: Abd al-Hussain Farmanfarma was a wealthy landowner whose dissatisfaction with his peasants over taxes lead him to complain to the parliament in 1907.