Persian Voices: Parliament and Constitution

We do enact that an assembly of delegates elected by the princes, the mujtahids, the Qajar family, the noble and notables, the landowners, the merchants, and the guilds shall be formed and constituted by election of the classes above-mentioned in the capital Tehran.

—Mozaffar al-Din Shah


Amirahmadi, Hooshang. (2012). The Political Economy of Iran Under the Qajars: Society, Politics, Economy and Foreign Relations 1799 to 1921. London: I.B. Tauris. Print, p.215.


Editor’s Note: In 1906, Iran’s King, Mozzafar al-Din Shah granted revolutionaries consisting of merchants, Islamic clergy, western-educated intelligentsia, and other notables, a parliament and a constitution. Many of the revolutionaries formed secret societies called, anjomans, in Persian, which continued to be active after the revolution.

چنان مصمم شدیم که مجلس شورای ملی از منتخبین
شاهزادگان و علما و قاجاریه و اعیان و اشراف و
ملاکین و تجار و اصناف بانتخاب طبقات مرقومه در
.دارالخلافه تهران تشکیل و تنظیم شود
مظفرالدین شاه